2. India before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Q 1. Name the following.
1. The Queen of Gondwana – Rani Durgavati
2. The son of Udaysingh – Maharana Pratap
3. The founder of the Mughal dynasty – Babur
4. The first Sultan of the Bahamani kingdom – Hasan Gangu
5. The fighting force established by Guru Gobindsing – Khalsa dal.
6. The capital of Bhillam V of Yadav dynasty – Deogiri
7.  Sultan who plundered Somnath temple – Mahmud of Ghazni
8. Founders of Vijayanagar kingdom – Harihar and Bukka
9. The famous king of Vijayanagar kingdom – Krishanadevaraya
10. Daughter of Hussain Nizamshah of Ahmadnagar – Chandbibi
11. Founder of Din-I-Ilahi – Akbar
12. The ninth Guru of the Sikhs – Guru Teghbahadur
13. The tenth Guru of the Sikhs – Guru Gobindsing
Q 2. Find the odd man out
 1. Sultan Mahmud, Qutubuddin Aibak, Muhammad Ghuri, Babur.
2. Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, Sultanate, Baridshahi
3. Akbar, Humayun, Shershah, Aurangazeb.
4. Maharana Pratap, Rani Durgavati, Chandbibi, Gadadharsinha
5. Krishnadevaraya, Harihar, Rajraj I, Bukka
Rajraj I
Q 3. Answer briefly.
1. How did the kingdoms of Vijaynagar and Bahamani emerge?
        During the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughluque of Delhi, there were many revolts in the South against the central power of Delhi. From these revolts arose the formidable Vijaynagar and Bahamani kingdoms.
2. What reforms did Mahmud Gawan make?
        Mahmud Gawan was the Chief Wazir of the Bahamani kingdom and was a good administrator. He started paying the soldiers their salaries in cash instead of through land grants. He brought discipline in the army. He introduced many reforms in the land revenue system. He opened a Madarsa at Bidar for Arabic and Persian studies.
3. Why did it become impossible for the Mughals to strengthen their base in Assam?
        The Ahoms united under the leadership of the Gadadharsinha. Commander Lachit Borphukan gave an intense battle against the Mughals. The Ahoms used the guerilla technique in the conflict against the Mughals. It became impossible for the Mughals to strengthen their base in Assam.
Q 4.Write about them briefly in your own words
1.  Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijayanagar in 1509 CE. He defeated the combined forces of the sultan’s who had united under the leadership of the Bahmani Sultan Muhamud Shah. Krishnadevaraya was a scholar. He wrote ‘Amuktamalyada’ in Telugu compendium on the polity.
2. Chand Bibi
Chand Bibi was a capable daughter of Hussain Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar. She bravely defended the fort when the Mughals attacked the Ahmednagar. At this time there was internal strife among the factions of the Sardar in the Nizamshahi’s kingdom. This resulted in the murder of Chand Bibi.
3. Rani Durgavati
Durgavati was born in the dynasty of Chandel Rajput. She became the queen of Gondwana when she was married.  She was an excellent administrator. After her husband’s death, Durgavati laid down her life while fighting against Akbar but she did not surrender.
Q 5. Give reasons.
1. The Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five fragments.
After the death of Mahmud Gawan, factionism increased among the Bahmani Sardars. The conflict with the Vijayanagar Kingdom had an adverse effect on the Bahmani kingdom the provincial governors began to act more independently. As a result, this led to the disintegration of the Bahmani kingdom into five small powers.
2. Rana Sanga’s Army was defeated.
  Babur’s artillery and reserved force played a key role in the battle of Khanua between Rana Sanga and Babur. As a result, Rana Sanga’s army was defeated
3. Rana Pratap has become immortal in history.
Rana Pratap continued the struggle for the existence of Mewad. Till the very end, he struggled with Akbar to maintain his independence. He has become immortal in history due to his qualities of valour, courage, self-respect and sacrifice.
4. Aurangzeb imprisoned Guru Teghbahadur.
Ninth Guru of the Sikhs Guru Teghbahadur protested strongly against Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance therefore Aurangzeb imprisoned him and beheaded him.
5. The Rajput fought against the Mughals.
        Aurangzeb could not obtain the cooperation of Rajputs. After the death of Rana Jaswantsingh, he annexed the kingdom of Marwad to the Mughal empire. Durgadas Rathod crowned Jaswantsingh’s minor son Ajitsingh and fought hard against the Mughals.
Q 6. Complete the timeline.
1336 CE …………… CE 1509 CE …………… CE
Establishment of Vijaynagar kingdom Establishment of Bahmani kingdom   Establishment of the Mughal power
2362f41526 CE 1347 CE 1509 CE 1526 CE
Establishment of Vijaynagar kingdom Establishment of Bahmani kingdom Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijaynagar Establishment of the Mughal power

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