Famous Personalities of India Std 7 History

Krishnadeva Raya


Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529) is one of the greatest emperors from the Vijayanagar Empire. He was one of the greatly celebrated emperor from the Vijayanagara kingdom from South India.

After the death of Devaraya II (1446) his successors were less capable. Vijayanagar kingdom had lost much of its territories to its enemies like Gajapati’s of Odisha and Bahamani’s. Saluva Narasimha Nayak usurped against king Praudha Raya and sieged the power and established the rule of the Saluva dynasty on the throne of the Vijayanagar kingdom. He ruled the Vijayanagara kingdom from 1485 to 1491, a very short span of 6 years. In the year 1505, the Saluva dynasty ousted and another general Tuluva Narasa Nayaka who worked under the Saluva Narsimha Nayaka ascended the throne of Vijayanagar Empire and established the rule of the Tuluva dynasty. The Tuluva dynasty is the third dynasty to rule the Vijayanagar Empire.

After the death of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, his eldest son Vira Narasimha Raya became the king of the Vijayanagar Empire. Krishnadeva Raya was his younger half-brother.

According to some historians on his death bed, Vira Narasimha Raya requested his minister Saluva Thimmarasu to blind Krishnadeva Raya, so that his son can become the king of Vijayanagar Empire. However, Thimmarasu bought a pair of she-goat eyes to the king and informed that Krishnadeva Raya had been killed.  Krishnadeva Raya ascended the throne after the death of Vira Narasimha Raya.


At the time of the crown, the Vijayanagar Empire was not so dominant. Under the reign of Krishnadeva Raya, the Vijayanagar Empire emerged as the largest empire in India after the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. He became the dominant ruler in South India by defeating Bahmani Sultanate, Sultans of Bijapur and Golconda, Gajapati of Odisha.



The rule of Krishnadeva Raya is regarded as the golden age of the Vijayanagar Empire. Many poets and scholars of Telugu, Kannada, Sanskrit, and Tamil enjoyed the patronage of the emperor Krishanadeva Raya. The scholars and poets in the royal court of Krishanadeva Raya are known as Asthadiggajas. They are

Allasani Peddana


Nandi Thimmana

Pingali Suranna


Ayyalaraju Ramabhadrudu

Tenali Ramakrishna

Bhattu Murthi

Telugu literature reached its peak during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya. Krishanadeva Raya himself was fluent in many languages. Amuktamalyada an epic poem in Telugu is composed by Krishnadeva Raya. He is also known as Andhra Bhoja and Kannada Rajya Ramana.

According to the travelogues of Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz, Portuguese travelers who visited during the reign of Krishanadeva Raya, he was an able administrator, excellent general leading from the front in the battle. He was benefited from his capable prime minister Thimmarasu. The foreign travelers who visited during his reign spoke highly about the administration and prosperity of the people.

Krishnadeva Raya made his son Tirumala Raya as crown prince. But the crown prince did not survive for long as he was poisoned to death. Gajapatis of Odisha conspired the death of the Tirumala Raya but unaware of the conspiracy Krihsnadeva Raya suspected his minister Thimmarasu and blinded his entire family.

In the year 1529, while he was preparing for an attack on Belgaum, Krishnadeva Raya took seriously ill. Before his death, he nominated his brother, Achyutadeva Raya as his successor.

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Famous Personalities of India

Rajmata Jijabai

                            Rajmata Jijabai

Birth: 12 January 1598
Death: 17 June 1674

Jijabai also is known as Rajmata Jijabai, mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, founder of the Maratha kingdom.

Jijabai was born on 12 January 1598. Her parents are Mahalasabai Jadhav and Lakhuji Jadhav. Lakhuji Jadhav belonged to Deulgaon, near Sindkhed, in present-day Buldhana district of Maharashtra.  As per the customs prevailed in those days Jijabai was married at an early age (at the age of 8 years) to Shahaji Bhosle, son of Maloji Bhosle of Verul village.

The wedding was held in Sindkhed on 5 Nov 1605. Jijabai was eight years old and her husband was hardly twelve years old. As per the custom of those days, Jijabai remained with her parents for several years before joining her husband.

Jijabai’s father-in-law, Maloji Bhonsle, had begun his career as a shilledar serving under the command of her father, Lakhujirao Jadhav. Her father was not happy with the marriage of his daughter due to the difference in the background and status of both the families.

Jijabai bore Shahaji as many as eight children (six daughters and two sons). All the daughters died in infancy and only the two sons, Sambhaji and Shivaji, reached adulthood. Sambhaji was the elder son and Shivaji was the younger. In 1630, three years after Shivaji’s birth, Jijabai received a co-wife into her household after Shahaji married Tukabai.

Shahaji was a valiant, courageous and brave Sardar of the Marathas. He himself aspired to establish a Swaraj. Initially, he was in the service of the Nizamshahi. He tried to save the Nizamshahi from the combined forces of Adilshahi and Mughals. But he could not withstand the combined forces of Adilshahi and Mughals. After the Nizamshahi wiped out, Shahaji became a Sardar in the court of Adilshahi. He was granted Jagir of Bengaluru and as per the terms of the treaty forced to move to Bengaluru. While Shivaji and Jijabai were at Bengaluru, Shahaji provided excellent education to Shivaji.

While Sambhaji was with his father Shahaji, in Karnataka, Jijabai along with young Shivaji and a few chosen associates shifted to Pune.

In those days, a large part of Maharashtra was under the rule of Nijamshah of Ahmadnagar and Adilshah of Bijapur. These two rulers were at a constant fight with each other to prove their dominance over the parts of Maharashtra. Along with these rulers, there are Siddis along the coastline of Konkan, the Portuguese, the British, the Dutch and the French. All these foreign invaders constantly tried to prove their dominance over Maharashtra. Due to all these factors, there was instability and insecurity in Maharashtra. The condition of the common man was miserable.

There were many great Sardars of Marathas but they were worked either for the Adishah or Nizamshah. They concerned with their own jagirs and at constant conflicts with each other.

Jijabai was not happy that her husband and her father were serving under the Muslim rulers. She always had a vision for an independent kingdom.

Nijamshah deceitfully murdered Jijabai’s father Lakhuji Jadhav and his sons in his royal court. This incident had a deep impact on Jijabai.

Jijabai was a very pious and intelligent woman with a great vision for an independent kingdom. Jijabai is widely credited with raising Shivaji in a manner that led to his future greatness. She inspired Shivaji by telling stories from Ramayana, Mahabharata. Right from his childhood, Jijau would tell Shivaji about the lives of Shriram, Maruti, Shrikrishna to make him pious and patriotic.  Right from his childhood, she sowed the seeds of devotion to the nation. She instilled in him many values like courage, modesty, truthfulness, fearlessness. She inspired him to the establishment of Hindavi Swaraj. In Shivaji’s spotless character and courage, Jijabai’s contribution is enormous. It was the efforts of Jijau that Shivaji became an Ideal administrator and ruler.

She died soon after the coronation of Shivaji on June 17, 1674. Shivaji was heartbroken by her death. She was not only a mother to Shivaji but also a source of inspiration. She gave a number of decisions in legal and administrative matters.


She was loved and respected by all her family members. She was looked upon as the support system in the family. In all aspects, she was an ideal Hindu woman.



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Education Std 7 History

5. The foundation of the Swaraj

Q 1. Find the odd man out
 i. Pune, Supe, Chakan, Bengaluru.
ii. Jadhav of Phaltan, Mores of Javali, Ghorpades of Mudhol, Sawant’s of Sawantwadi.
     Jadhav of Phaltan
iii. Torana, Murumbdev, Sinhagad, Sindhudurg
 Q 2. Write about in your own words.
i. The efforts Veermata Jijabai took for Shivaji Maharaj’s education.
          Jijamata was very particular about giving excellent education to Shivaji. She instilled in him values like modesty, truthfulness, oratory, Vigilance, courage and fearlessness. She saw that he was trained in the usage of weapons and inspired in him the will to win and the dream of Swaraj.
ii. Shivaji Maharaj started his work of founding Swaraj in the Maval region.
          The Mavall terrain is full of hills and valleys and is not easily accessible. Shivaji Raje made use of these geographical features of Maval very skillfully for the foundation of the Swaraj.
iii. List the companions and associates of Shivaji Maharaj.
           Many companions and associates joined Shivaji Maharaj in the work of founding the Swaraj. Among them were a Yesaji Kank, Baji Pasalkar, Bapuji Mudgal, Narhekar Deshpande brothers,Kavji Khandalkar, Jiva Mahala, Tanaji Malusare, Kanhoji Jedhe, Bajiprabhu Deshpande and Dadaji Narasprabhu Deshpande.
 Q 2. Find out and write
i. Why Shahaji Maharaj is termed a Swaraj visionary.
         Shahajiraje himself aspired to establish Swaraj by ousting the powers of foreign people. That is why he is known as Swaraj visionary.
ii. Shivaji Maharaj paid attention to building a navy.
            Shivaji came into contact with Siddhi, Portuguese and British powers on the Western coast. Shivaji Maharaj realized that to fight these powers it was necessary to have a strong naval force. Therefore, he concentrated on building a navy.
 iii. The conflict with Adil Shahi continued even as the Mughal Army invaded the Swaraj.
           Shivaji Maharaj realized that it would not be prudent to fight two enemies at the same time therefore he entered into a treaty with the  Adilshah.
iv. How Shivaji Maharaj escaped from Panhalgad.
           Siddi Jauhar’s soldiers laid siege to the Panhala Fort for about 5 months. Siddi showed no sign of relenting. So, Shivaji Maharaj opened talks with him this led to slackness in the siege around Panhalgad. Shivaji Maharaj took advantage of this and escaped from Panhalagad.
Q 5. Answer in short
I. When was Shivaji Maharaj born?
         Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born at the Shivneri fort near Junnar in Pune district on the day of Phalgun Vadya Tritiya in the Shaka year 1551, that is on 19 February 1630.
ii. Forts were of special significance give a reason.
          Fort was of special significance. with a firm hold over a fort, it was possible to control the surrounding area. If one had forts, one ruled the land. Therefore, Shivaji Maharaj decided to acquire the forts that were within his jagir.
 iii. What was the first capital of the Swaraj?
        Rajgad was the first capital of the Swaraj.
iv. Who opposed to the cause of founding Swaraj?
          The Mores of Jawali,  the Ghorpades of Mudhol,  the Sawant’s of Sawantwadi, and other sardars in the Adilshahi Court opposed to the cause of the founding of Swaraj.
v. Which values instilled in Shivaji by Jijamata?
          Jijamata was installed in Shivaji values like modesty, truthfulness, oratory, vigilance, courage and fearlessness.
Q 6. Write a short note on Shahajiraje.
          Shahajiraje was a valiant, courageous, intelligent and great political expert. He was an excellent archer. He was also an expert in using the sword, Patta and spear. He loved his subjects. He had won many regions in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. He aspired to establish Swaraj by ousting the powers of foreign people. That is why he is known as Swaraj visionary.
Q 7. Write a note on Veermata Jijabai.
            Jijabai was the daughter of the great Sardar Lakhujiraje Jadhav of Sindhkhedraja in Buldhana district. At a young age, she had received military training as well as education in various subjects. She helped and encouraged Shivaji Maharaj to realize the dream of establishing Swaraj. She was a competent and visionary political expert. She constantly guided Shivaji in the mission of establishing Swaraj. At times, she undertook the task of giving verdicts for resolving the problems of people.


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Education Std 7 History

4. Maharashtra Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Q 1. Write the meaning.
Budruk – original town
Balod – new one
Vatan – hereditary land
Q 2. Find out and write.
  1. People from Africa who had settled along the Konkan coastline – Siddi
  2. The author of ‘Amrutanubhav’ – Sant Dnyaneshwar
  3. Sant Tukaram place – Dehu
  4. He composed Bharuds – Sant Eknath
  5. He explained the importance of physical fitness – Ramdas Samarth
  6. Women Sants – Sant Soyrabai, Sant Nirmalabai, Sant Muktabai,                                 Sant Janabai.
Q 3. Write about these personalities and their work in your own words
 a. Sant Namdev
       Sant Namdev was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He was a skilled organizer. He performed excellent keertanas as well. He awakened the sense of equality in men and women belonging to all castes through the medium of Keertans. Many Sants as well as common people were influenced by his teachings. His compositions are included in the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs.
b. Sant Dnyaneshwar
       He was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He wrote the Bavartha- Deepika or  Dnyaneshwari which elucidates the meaning of the Sanskrit Bhagavad Geeta. He also composed the Amrutanubhav. He preached the importance of the path of devotion through his works and compositions. He showed a simple way of worship and conduct which the common people could follow easily. Though his life was spent in extremely adverse circumstances, he never lost the calm of his mind and never harboured bitterness.
c. Sant Eknath
       He was a great Sant of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra.  His compositions are many and diverse. They include abhanga, gavalana, bharud, etc. He has stated Bhagvat Dharma in detail and in a simple manner. He demonstrated through his conduct that there is no need to renounce worldly matters for attaining the highest truth, Paramarth. He was a teacher of the people in the true sense of the term. he heavily criticized those who hated other religions.
  d. Sant Tukaram
       Sant Tukaram belongs to the Dehu near Pune. His compositions or abhangas are very pleasing and lucid reaching the greatest poetic heights. His Ghata is a precious treasure of the Marathi language. He asked us to find the God by showing love to the unhappy and the tormented. He criticized the hypocrisy and superstition in society in very strong terms. He stressed that devotion should be coupled with morality.
Q 5. Why were droughts a great calamity for the people?
       If it did not rain, crops would fail. The prices of food grains rose. It became difficult for people to get food grains and other things. There will be no fodder for the cattle. Water became scarce. So therefore it becomes difficult for people to live in the village and they are forced to leave the village Therefore a famine was a great calamity for the people.
Q 6. Name the different people resided in Maharashtra.
       There were settlements of  Siddi people who had come from Africa, the  Portuguese, the British, the Dutch and the French are the people resided in Maharashtra
Q 7. Answer the following.
i. What is Kasba?
       Generally, the headquarters of a Paragana was called Kasba.
ii. What is mouza?
       A village smaller than a Kasba is known as mouza.
 iii. Who was the chief of the village?
       Patil was the chief of the village.
iv. Who is the Kulkarni?
       The Kulkarni kept the record of the revenue that was collected within a village.
v. What is known as baluta?
       The peasant gave a share of the agricultural produce to the artisan and for the services they rendered to the village community, this share was known as baluta.
vi. Who are the vatandars of a peth?
       The Shete and the Mahajans are the vatandars of peth.
vii. What is the duty of the Mahajan?
       The Mahajan maintained the accounts of the peth.
viii. What is a paragana?
       Many villages together made a pargana.
 ix. Who is Deshpandes and the Deshmukhs?
       Deshmukhs and Deshpandes are the vatandars of pargana.
x. Who is the chief of the pargana?
       The Deshmukh was the chief of the pargana.
xi. What is the duty of Deshpande?
       The Deshpande was the chief of all the Kulkarni in the pargana.
Q 8. Complete the following chart.
Village (Mauja)
What it means
A village smaller than Kasba
Headquarters of a paragna
Group of many villages
Patil and Kulkarni
Shete and Mahajan
Deshmukh and Deshpande
Indapur, Wai
Pune, Chakan


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Education Std 7 History

3. Religious Synthesis


1. Write the related word
1.  Shri Basaveshwar: Karnataka::Meerabai: Rajasthan
2. Ramananda: North India:: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: Bengal
3. Shri Chakradhar: Maharashtra::  Shankaradeva: Assam
4. Mirabai: Rajasthan::   Narsi Mehta: Gujarat
5. Chakradhar Swamy: Mahanubhav Panth::  Shri Basaveshwar: Lingayat
6. Surdasa: Sursagar:: Sant Tulshidas: Ramcharita Manasa
2. Make a chart to show the people and works related to
1. Bhakti Movement
2. Mahanubhav Panth
3. Sikhism
Work People Work
1. Bhakti-Movement 1. Surdasa
2. Sant Tulshidas
3. Manmath Swami
1. Sursagar
2. Ramcharita Manasa
3. Paramrahasya
2. Mahanubhav Panth 1. Chakradhar Swami 1. Leelacharita
3. Sikhism 1. Guru Nanak 1. Guru Granth Sahib
3. Write about it in your own words.
1. Sant Kabir became a renowned Sant in the Bhakti Movement.
Ans: Sant Kabir did not attach any importance to places of pilgrimage, vratas or idol worship. For him, Truth was God. He did not believe in any differences based on caste, creed, sect and religion. He wanted to bring about Hindu and Muslim unity. He criticized the extremely orthodox people in both Hindu and Muslim religions in strong terms. Therefore Sant Kabir became a renowned Sant in the Bhakti Movement.
2. The impact of Sant Basaveshwar’s work on society.
Ans:  In Karnataka, Basaveshwar spread the Lingayat stream of thought. He opposed the caste system and stressed the dignity of labour. He encouraged woman participation in his movement. Shri Basaveshwar conveyed his teachings in the language of the people i.e., Kannada. As a result, there was a great impact of Sant Basaveshwar on society.
4. Answer in Short
1.  Name the founder of ‘Mahanubhav Panth’ in Maharashtra?
  Shri Chakradhar Swami founded the ‘Mahanubhav Panth’ in Maharashtra.
2. Who are the ‘Sikhs’ ?
 The followers of Guru Nanak are known as Sikhs.
3. What is the name of the holy book of Sikhs?
 The ‘Adigrantha’ also known as the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ is the holy book of Sikhs.
4. Who are Naynars and Alawars in the Bhakti Movement?
  Naynars are the devotees of Shiva and Alawars are the devotees of Vishnu.
5. What does idol ‘Harihar’ depict?
  Idol of Harihar depict half Vishnu and Half Shiva to consider Shiva and Vishnu as one and the same.
5. Name the following.
1. The Tenth Guru of Sikhs – Guru Gobindsingh
2. Sufi Saints – Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti and Shaikh Nijamuddin Avaliya.
3. Founder of Bhakti Movement in South India – Acharya Ramanuja
4.  Strengthened the Bhakti Movement in North India – Sant Ramanand
5. Composed devotional verses in Rajasthani and Gujarat – Sant Mirabai
6. Known as the first poet of the Gujarati language – Narsi Mehta
7. Spread the Bhakti Movement in Assam – Shankaradeva
8. Founder of Sikhism – Guru Nanak
6. Write a short note on
1. Bhakti Movement in South India
      It is believed that the Bhakti Movement originated in South India.  The Naynar and the Alawar Bhakti Movements emerged in this region. The Naynars were devotees of Shiva, while the Alawars were devotees of Vishnu. There were also attempts to consider Shiva and Vishnu as one and the same and bring them together. Harihar idols which depict half Vishnu and half Shiva were produced on large scale. Acharya Ramanuja and other Acharyas strengthened the base of the Bhakti Movement in India. They told people that God is for all. God does not discriminate. The teachings of Ramanuja had a great impact in North India also.
2. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
 In Bengal, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu underlined the importance of Krishanabhakti. Due to his teachings, people joined the Bhakti movement in transcending the boundaries of caste and creed. Under his influence, Shankaradeva spread the Bhakti movement in Assam.
3. Sant Mirabai
     Sant Mirabai stressed the importance of devotion to Krishna. She belonged to the royal family of Mewad. She renounced all pleasures of the royal family and immersed herself in devotion to Krishna. She composed devotional verses in Rajasthani and Gujarati. Her devotional verses give the message of devotion, tolerance and humanity.
4. The Sufi Sect
     This is a sect in Islam. The Sufi saints believed that God is full of love and the only way to reach him is through love and devotion. Their main teachings are love for all living beings, meditation and simple living. Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti and Shaikh Nizamuddin Avaliya were great Sufi Saints. The teachings of Sufi Saints led to unity in the Hindu and Muslim communities. Sufi music had made a valuable contribution to Indian music.

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Education Std 7 History

2. India before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Q 1. Name the following.
1. The Queen of Gondwana – Rani Durgavati
2. The son of Udaysingh – Maharana Pratap
3. The founder of the Mughal dynasty – Babur
4. The first Sultan of the Bahamani kingdom – Hasan Gangu
5. The fighting force established by Guru Gobindsing – Khalsa dal.
6. The capital of Bhillam V of Yadav dynasty – Deogiri
7.  Sultan who plundered Somnath temple – Mahmud of Ghazni
8. Founders of Vijayanagar kingdom – Harihar and Bukka
9. The famous king of Vijayanagar kingdom – Krishanadevaraya
10. Daughter of Hussain Nizamshah of Ahmadnagar – Chandbibi
11. Founder of Din-I-Ilahi – Akbar
12. The ninth Guru of the Sikhs – Guru Teghbahadur
13. The tenth Guru of the Sikhs – Guru Gobindsing
Q 2. Find the odd man out
 1. Sultan Mahmud, Qutubuddin Aibak, Muhammad Ghuri, Babur.
2. Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, Sultanate, Baridshahi
3. Akbar, Humayun, Shershah, Aurangazeb.
4. Maharana Pratap, Rani Durgavati, Chandbibi, Gadadharsinha
5. Krishnadevaraya, Harihar, Rajraj I, Bukka
Rajraj I
Q 3. Answer briefly.
1. How did the kingdoms of Vijaynagar and Bahamani emerge?
        During the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughluque of Delhi, there were many revolts in the South against the central power of Delhi. From these revolts arose the formidable Vijaynagar and Bahamani kingdoms.
2. What reforms did Mahmud Gawan make?
        Mahmud Gawan was the Chief Wazir of the Bahamani kingdom and was a good administrator. He started paying the soldiers their salaries in cash instead of through land grants. He brought discipline in the army. He introduced many reforms in the land revenue system. He opened a Madarsa at Bidar for Arabic and Persian studies.
3. Why did it become impossible for the Mughals to strengthen their base in Assam?
        The Ahoms united under the leadership of the Gadadharsinha. Commander Lachit Borphukan gave an intense battle against the Mughals. The Ahoms used the guerilla technique in the conflict against the Mughals. It became impossible for the Mughals to strengthen their base in Assam.
Q 4.Write about them briefly in your own words
1.  Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijayanagar in 1509 CE. He defeated the combined forces of the sultan’s who had united under the leadership of the Bahmani Sultan Muhamud Shah. Krishnadevaraya was a scholar. He wrote ‘Amuktamalyada’ in Telugu compendium on the polity.
2. Chand Bibi
Chand Bibi was a capable daughter of Hussain Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar. She bravely defended the fort when the Mughals attacked the Ahmednagar. At this time there was internal strife among the factions of the Sardar in the Nizamshahi’s kingdom. This resulted in the murder of Chand Bibi.
3. Rani Durgavati
Durgavati was born in the dynasty of Chandel Rajput. She became the queen of Gondwana when she was married.  She was an excellent administrator. After her husband’s death, Durgavati laid down her life while fighting against Akbar but she did not surrender.
Q 5. Give reasons.
1. The Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five fragments.
After the death of Mahmud Gawan, factionism increased among the Bahmani Sardars. The conflict with the Vijayanagar Kingdom had an adverse effect on the Bahmani kingdom the provincial governors began to act more independently. As a result, this led to the disintegration of the Bahmani kingdom into five small powers.
2. Rana Sanga’s Army was defeated.
  Babur’s artillery and reserved force played a key role in the battle of Khanua between Rana Sanga and Babur. As a result, Rana Sanga’s army was defeated
3. Rana Pratap has become immortal in history.
Rana Pratap continued the struggle for the existence of Mewad. Till the very end, he struggled with Akbar to maintain his independence. He has become immortal in history due to his qualities of valour, courage, self-respect and sacrifice.
4. Aurangzeb imprisoned Guru Teghbahadur.
Ninth Guru of the Sikhs Guru Teghbahadur protested strongly against Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance therefore Aurangzeb imprisoned him and beheaded him.
5. The Rajput fought against the Mughals.
        Aurangzeb could not obtain the cooperation of Rajputs. After the death of Rana Jaswantsingh, he annexed the kingdom of Marwad to the Mughal empire. Durgadas Rathod crowned Jaswantsingh’s minor son Ajitsingh and fought hard against the Mughals.
Q 6. Complete the timeline.
1336 CE …………… CE 1509 CE …………… CE
Establishment of Vijaynagar kingdom Establishment of Bahmani kingdom   Establishment of the Mughal power
2362f41526 CE 1347 CE 1509 CE 1526 CE
Establishment of Vijaynagar kingdom Establishment of Bahmani kingdom Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijaynagar Establishment of the Mughal power

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1. Sources of History

Q 1. Fill in the blanks
1. The period from the 9th century CE till the end of the 18th century CE is considered as the medieval period in Indian history.
2. History must be based on authentic evidence or proofs.
3. An inscription is a carving on a stone or wall.
4. Inscriptions carved on sheets of Copper are known as Copper Plates.
Q.2 Answer the following questions
1. What is History?
History is a chronological, scientific and systematic account of past events.
2. What are the major types of forts?
Some major types of forts are hill forts, forest forts, sea forts and the forts on the plains.
3. What are the different things monuments include?
Monuments include samadhis, graves, veergala, palaces, ministerial mansions, Queen’s quarters (raniwasa) and houses of common people.
4. Name the different coins used since ancient times?
Coins like kavadi, damadi, pai, dhela, paisa, ana and rupee were used since ancient times.
5. Name the different metals used for making coins?
Metals like Gold, Silver and Copper are used for making coins.
6. What is an inscription?
An inscription is a carving on a stone or wall.
7. Name examples of oral sources?
        Some examples of oral sources are owis, folk songs, powadas, folk tales, legends and myths.
8. What is a Tarikh?
Tarikh or Tavarikh means the sequence of events.
9. What qualities of the author are important in the writing of history?
The author’s impartiality and neutrality are very important for writing history.
Q.3 Select the correct pair
Four factors very important from the viewpoint of history are-
a. place, time, people, location
b. material sources, written sources, oral sources, timeline.
c. individuals, society, place, time.
Ans: individuals, society, place, time
Q. 4 Answer in short
1. What are the things we learn by looking at the monuments?
We come to know about the development of architecture, the economic conditions, the quality of art, style of the building construction and people’s standard of living.
2. What things do we learn from coins?
From coins, we learn about the rulers, their period, governance, religious ideas, personal details, etc.
3. There was religious co-ordination in medieval India. Give reason?
From the images of Ram-Sita on the coins of Emperor Akbar or Shiv-Parvati on the coins of Hyder Ali, we see the religious co-ordination in medieval India.
Q. 4 Find the odd man out.
1. Material sources, written sources, unwritten sources, oral sources.
Ans: unwritten sources.
2.  Monuments, coins, cave sculptures, stories.
Ans: stories.
3. Bhurjapatras, temples, treaties, paintings.
Ans: temples.
4. Owis, tarikhs, folk tales, myths.
Ans: tarikhs.
Q. 5 Complete the names of the following sources of history.
1. l _ _ _ _ _ d
2. t _ _ _ _ h
3. b _ _ _ _ r
4. p _ _ _ _ a
5. i _ _ _ _ i _ _ i _ n
6. m _ _ u _ _ _ t
Q. 6 Explain the following concepts.
1. Material Sources
        Forts have an important place among the material sources. Monuments provide insights about the period. The coins made by different rulers are also important sources of history. An inscription is considered to be a very important and reliable source of history. Chaityas, Viharas, temples, churches, mosques, agiaries, durgahs, mukbaras, gurudwaras, monuments, wells, utensils, weapons, ornaments, toys, musical instruments are all sources of history.
2. Written sources
        We learn about significant historical events in the medieval period from sources like Devnagari, Arabic, Persian, Modi, etc. as also a variety of languages, bhujpatras, religious manuscripts, treatises, edicts, decrees, biographies, paintings, etc. We can gather information about food items, attire, conventions, and rules of conduct of the people festivals and people’s life, etc. from the written sources of history.
3.  Oral sources
        Oral sources are the various aspects of folk life through folk literature traditionally passed on from generation to generation. Some examples are owis, folk songs, powadas, folk tales, legends and myths.

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