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1. Sources of History

Q 1. Fill in the blanks
1. The period from the 9th century CE till the end of the 18th century CE is considered as the medieval period in Indian history.
2. History must be based on authentic evidence or proofs.
3. An inscription is a carving on a stone or wall.
4. Inscriptions carved on sheets of Copper are known as Copper Plates.
Q.2 Answer the following questions
1. What is History?
History is a chronological, scientific and systematic account of past events.
2. What are the major types of forts?
Some major types of forts are hill forts, forest forts, sea forts and the forts on the plains.
3. What are the different things monuments include?
Monuments include samadhis, graves, veergala, palaces, ministerial mansions, Queen’s quarters (raniwasa) and houses of common people.
4. Name the different coins used since ancient times?
Coins like kavadi, damadi, pai, dhela, paisa, ana and rupee were used since ancient times.
5. Name the different metals used for making coins?
Metals like Gold, Silver and Copper are used for making coins.
6. What is an inscription?
An inscription is a carving on a stone or wall.
7. Name examples of oral sources?
        Some examples of oral sources are owis, folk songs, powadas, folk tales, legends and myths.
8. What is a Tarikh?
Tarikh or Tavarikh means the sequence of events.
9. What qualities of the author are important in the writing of history?
The author’s impartiality and neutrality are very important for writing history.
Q.3 Select the correct pair
Four factors very important from the viewpoint of history are-
a. place, time, people, location
b. material sources, written sources, oral sources, timeline.
c. individuals, society, place, time.
Ans: individuals, society, place, time
Q. 4 Answer in short
1. What are the things we learn by looking at the monuments?
We come to know about the development of architecture, the economic conditions, the quality of art, style of the building construction and people’s standard of living.
2. What things do we learn from coins?
From coins, we learn about the rulers, their period, governance, religious ideas, personal details, etc.
3. There was religious co-ordination in medieval India. Give reason?
From the images of Ram-Sita on the coins of Emperor Akbar or Shiv-Parvati on the coins of Hyder Ali, we see the religious co-ordination in medieval India.
Q. 4 Find the odd man out.
1. Material sources, written sources, unwritten sources, oral sources.
Ans: unwritten sources.
2.  Monuments, coins, cave sculptures, stories.
Ans: stories.
3. Bhurjapatras, temples, treaties, paintings.
Ans: temples.
4. Owis, tarikhs, folk tales, myths.
Ans: tarikhs.
Q. 5 Complete the names of the following sources of history.
1. l _ _ _ _ _ d
 legend
2. t _ _ _ _ h
tarikh
3. b _ _ _ _ r
bakhar
4. p _ _ _ _ a
powada
5. i _ _ _ _ i _ _ i _ n
inscription
6. m _ _ u _ _ _ t
monument
Q. 6 Explain the following concepts.
1. Material Sources
        Forts have an important place among the material sources. Monuments provide insights about the period. The coins made by different rulers are also important sources of history. An inscription is considered to be a very important and reliable source of history. Chaityas, Viharas, temples, churches, mosques, agiaries, durgahs, mukbaras, gurudwaras, monuments, wells, utensils, weapons, ornaments, toys, musical instruments are all sources of history.
2. Written sources
        We learn about significant historical events in the medieval period from sources like Devnagari, Arabic, Persian, Modi, etc. as also a variety of languages, bhujpatras, religious manuscripts, treatises, edicts, decrees, biographies, paintings, etc. We can gather information about food items, attire, conventions, and rules of conduct of the people festivals and people’s life, etc. from the written sources of history.
3.  Oral sources
        Oral sources are the various aspects of folk life through folk literature traditionally passed on from generation to generation. Some examples are owis, folk songs, powadas, folk tales, legends and myths.

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