Education Std 7 History

4. Maharashtra Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Q 1. Write the meaning.
Budruk – original town
Balod – new one
Vatan – hereditary land
Q 2. Find out and write.
  1. People from Africa who had settled along the Konkan coastline – Siddi
  2. The author of ‘Amrutanubhav’ – Sant Dnyaneshwar
  3. Sant Tukaram place – Dehu
  4. He composed Bharuds – Sant Eknath
  5. He explained the importance of physical fitness – Ramdas Samarth
  6. Women Sants – Sant Soyrabai, Sant Nirmalabai, Sant Muktabai,                                 Sant Janabai.
Q 3. Write about these personalities and their work in your own words
 a. Sant Namdev
       Sant Namdev was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He was a skilled organizer. He performed excellent keertanas as well. He awakened the sense of equality in men and women belonging to all castes through the medium of Keertans. Many Sants as well as common people were influenced by his teachings. His compositions are included in the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs.
b. Sant Dnyaneshwar
       He was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He wrote the Bavartha- Deepika or  Dnyaneshwari which elucidates the meaning of the Sanskrit Bhagavad Geeta. He also composed the Amrutanubhav. He preached the importance of the path of devotion through his works and compositions. He showed a simple way of worship and conduct which the common people could follow easily. Though his life was spent in extremely adverse circumstances, he never lost the calm of his mind and never harboured bitterness.
c. Sant Eknath
       He was a great Sant of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra.  His compositions are many and diverse. They include abhanga, gavalana, bharud, etc. He has stated Bhagvat Dharma in detail and in a simple manner. He demonstrated through his conduct that there is no need to renounce worldly matters for attaining the highest truth, Paramarth. He was a teacher of the people in the true sense of the term. he heavily criticized those who hated other religions.
  d. Sant Tukaram
       Sant Tukaram belongs to the Dehu near Pune. His compositions or abhangas are very pleasing and lucid reaching the greatest poetic heights. His Ghata is a precious treasure of the Marathi language. He asked us to find the God by showing love to the unhappy and the tormented. He criticized the hypocrisy and superstition in society in very strong terms. He stressed that devotion should be coupled with morality.
Q 5. Why were droughts a great calamity for the people?
       If it did not rain, crops would fail. The prices of food grains rose. It became difficult for people to get food grains and other things. There will be no fodder for the cattle. Water became scarce. So therefore it becomes difficult for people to live in the village and they are forced to leave the village Therefore a famine was a great calamity for the people.
Q 6. Name the different people resided in Maharashtra.
       There were settlements of  Siddi people who had come from Africa, the  Portuguese, the British, the Dutch and the French are the people resided in Maharashtra
Q 7. Answer the following.
i. What is Kasba?
       Generally, the headquarters of a Paragana was called Kasba.
ii. What is mouza?
       A village smaller than a Kasba is known as mouza.
 iii. Who was the chief of the village?
       Patil was the chief of the village.
iv. Who is the Kulkarni?
       The Kulkarni kept the record of the revenue that was collected within a village.
v. What is known as baluta?
       The peasant gave a share of the agricultural produce to the artisan and for the services they rendered to the village community, this share was known as baluta.
vi. Who are the vatandars of a peth?
       The Shete and the Mahajans are the vatandars of peth.
vii. What is the duty of the Mahajan?
       The Mahajan maintained the accounts of the peth.
viii. What is a paragana?
       Many villages together made a pargana.
 ix. Who is Deshpandes and the Deshmukhs?
       Deshmukhs and Deshpandes are the vatandars of pargana.
x. Who is the chief of the pargana?
       The Deshmukh was the chief of the pargana.
xi. What is the duty of Deshpande?
       The Deshpande was the chief of all the Kulkarni in the pargana.
Q 8. Complete the following chart.
Village (Mauja)
What it means
A village smaller than Kasba
Headquarters of a paragna
Group of many villages
Patil and Kulkarni
Shete and Mahajan
Deshmukh and Deshpande
Indapur, Wai
Pune, Chakan


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Education Std 7 History

3. Religious Synthesis


1. Write the related word
1.  Shri Basaveshwar: Karnataka::Meerabai: Rajasthan
2. Ramananda: North India:: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: Bengal
3. Shri Chakradhar: Maharashtra::  Shankaradeva: Assam
4. Mirabai: Rajasthan::   Narsi Mehta: Gujarat
5. Chakradhar Swamy: Mahanubhav Panth::  Shri Basaveshwar: Lingayat
6. Surdasa: Sursagar:: Sant Tulshidas: Ramcharita Manasa
2. Make a chart to show the people and works related to
1. Bhakti Movement
2. Mahanubhav Panth
3. Sikhism
Work People Work
1. Bhakti-Movement 1. Surdasa
2. Sant Tulshidas
3. Manmath Swami
1. Sursagar
2. Ramcharita Manasa
3. Paramrahasya
2. Mahanubhav Panth 1. Chakradhar Swami 1. Leelacharita
3. Sikhism 1. Guru Nanak 1. Guru Granth Sahib
3. Write about it in your own words.
1. Sant Kabir became a renowned Sant in the Bhakti Movement.
Ans: Sant Kabir did not attach any importance to places of pilgrimage, vratas or idol worship. For him, Truth was God. He did not believe in any differences based on caste, creed, sect and religion. He wanted to bring about Hindu and Muslim unity. He criticized the extremely orthodox people in both Hindu and Muslim religions in strong terms. Therefore Sant Kabir became a renowned Sant in the Bhakti Movement.
2. The impact of Sant Basaveshwar’s work on society.
Ans:  In Karnataka, Basaveshwar spread the Lingayat stream of thought. He opposed the caste system and stressed the dignity of labour. He encouraged woman participation in his movement. Shri Basaveshwar conveyed his teachings in the language of the people i.e., Kannada. As a result, there was a great impact of Sant Basaveshwar on society.
4. Answer in Short
1.  Name the founder of ‘Mahanubhav Panth’ in Maharashtra?
  Shri Chakradhar Swami founded the ‘Mahanubhav Panth’ in Maharashtra.
2. Who are the ‘Sikhs’ ?
 The followers of Guru Nanak are known as Sikhs.
3. What is the name of the holy book of Sikhs?
 The ‘Adigrantha’ also known as the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ is the holy book of Sikhs.
4. Who are Naynars and Alawars in the Bhakti Movement?
  Naynars are the devotees of Shiva and Alawars are the devotees of Vishnu.
5. What does idol ‘Harihar’ depict?
  Idol of Harihar depict half Vishnu and Half Shiva to consider Shiva and Vishnu as one and the same.
5. Name the following.
1. The Tenth Guru of Sikhs – Guru Gobindsingh
2. Sufi Saints – Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti and Shaikh Nijamuddin Avaliya.
3. Founder of Bhakti Movement in South India – Acharya Ramanuja
4.  Strengthened the Bhakti Movement in North India – Sant Ramanand
5. Composed devotional verses in Rajasthani and Gujarat – Sant Mirabai
6. Known as the first poet of the Gujarati language – Narsi Mehta
7. Spread the Bhakti Movement in Assam – Shankaradeva
8. Founder of Sikhism – Guru Nanak
6. Write a short note on
1. Bhakti Movement in South India
      It is believed that the Bhakti Movement originated in South India.  The Naynar and the Alawar Bhakti Movements emerged in this region. The Naynars were devotees of Shiva, while the Alawars were devotees of Vishnu. There were also attempts to consider Shiva and Vishnu as one and the same and bring them together. Harihar idols which depict half Vishnu and half Shiva were produced on large scale. Acharya Ramanuja and other Acharyas strengthened the base of the Bhakti Movement in India. They told people that God is for all. God does not discriminate. The teachings of Ramanuja had a great impact in North India also.
2. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
 In Bengal, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu underlined the importance of Krishanabhakti. Due to his teachings, people joined the Bhakti movement in transcending the boundaries of caste and creed. Under his influence, Shankaradeva spread the Bhakti movement in Assam.
3. Sant Mirabai
     Sant Mirabai stressed the importance of devotion to Krishna. She belonged to the royal family of Mewad. She renounced all pleasures of the royal family and immersed herself in devotion to Krishna. She composed devotional verses in Rajasthani and Gujarati. Her devotional verses give the message of devotion, tolerance and humanity.
4. The Sufi Sect
     This is a sect in Islam. The Sufi saints believed that God is full of love and the only way to reach him is through love and devotion. Their main teachings are love for all living beings, meditation and simple living. Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti and Shaikh Nizamuddin Avaliya were great Sufi Saints. The teachings of Sufi Saints led to unity in the Hindu and Muslim communities. Sufi music had made a valuable contribution to Indian music.

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