4. Maharashtra Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Q 1. Write the meaning.
Budruk – original town
Balod – new one
Vatan – hereditary land
Q 2. Find out and write.
  1. People from Africa who had settled along the Konkan coastline – Siddi
  2. The author of ‘Amrutanubhav’ – Sant Dnyaneshwar
  3. Sant Tukaram place – Dehu
  4. He composed Bharuds – Sant Eknath
  5. He explained the importance of physical fitness – Ramdas Samarth
  6. Women Sants – Sant Soyrabai, Sant Nirmalabai, Sant Muktabai,                                 Sant Janabai.
Q 3. Write about these personalities and their work in your own words
 a. Sant Namdev
       Sant Namdev was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He was a skilled organizer. He performed excellent keertanas as well. He awakened the sense of equality in men and women belonging to all castes through the medium of Keertans. Many Sants as well as common people were influenced by his teachings. His compositions are included in the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs.
b. Sant Dnyaneshwar
       He was a great Sant of the Varkari movement. He wrote the Bavartha- Deepika or  Dnyaneshwari which elucidates the meaning of the Sanskrit Bhagavad Geeta. He also composed the Amrutanubhav. He preached the importance of the path of devotion through his works and compositions. He showed a simple way of worship and conduct which the common people could follow easily. Though his life was spent in extremely adverse circumstances, he never lost the calm of his mind and never harboured bitterness.
c. Sant Eknath
       He was a great Sant of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra.  His compositions are many and diverse. They include abhanga, gavalana, bharud, etc. He has stated Bhagvat Dharma in detail and in a simple manner. He demonstrated through his conduct that there is no need to renounce worldly matters for attaining the highest truth, Paramarth. He was a teacher of the people in the true sense of the term. he heavily criticized those who hated other religions.
  d. Sant Tukaram
       Sant Tukaram belongs to the Dehu near Pune. His compositions or abhangas are very pleasing and lucid reaching the greatest poetic heights. His Ghata is a precious treasure of the Marathi language. He asked us to find the God by showing love to the unhappy and the tormented. He criticized the hypocrisy and superstition in society in very strong terms. He stressed that devotion should be coupled with morality.
Q 5. Why were droughts a great calamity for the people?
       If it did not rain, crops would fail. The prices of food grains rose. It became difficult for people to get food grains and other things. There will be no fodder for the cattle. Water became scarce. So therefore it becomes difficult for people to live in the village and they are forced to leave the village Therefore a famine was a great calamity for the people.
Q 6. Name the different people resided in Maharashtra.
       There were settlements of  Siddi people who had come from Africa, the  Portuguese, the British, the Dutch and the French are the people resided in Maharashtra
Q 7. Answer the following.
i. What is Kasba?
       Generally, the headquarters of a Paragana was called Kasba.
ii. What is mouza?
       A village smaller than a Kasba is known as mouza.
 iii. Who was the chief of the village?
       Patil was the chief of the village.
iv. Who is the Kulkarni?
       The Kulkarni kept the record of the revenue that was collected within a village.
v. What is known as baluta?
       The peasant gave a share of the agricultural produce to the artisan and for the services they rendered to the village community, this share was known as baluta.
vi. Who are the vatandars of a peth?
       The Shete and the Mahajans are the vatandars of peth.
vii. What is the duty of the Mahajan?
       The Mahajan maintained the accounts of the peth.
viii. What is a paragana?
       Many villages together made a pargana.
 ix. Who is Deshpandes and the Deshmukhs?
       Deshmukhs and Deshpandes are the vatandars of pargana.
x. Who is the chief of the pargana?
       The Deshmukh was the chief of the pargana.
xi. What is the duty of Deshpande?
       The Deshpande was the chief of all the Kulkarni in the pargana.
Q 8. Complete the following chart.
Village (Mauja)
Kasba
Paragna
What it means
A village smaller than Kasba
Headquarters of a paragna
Group of many villages
Officers
Patil and Kulkarni
Shete and Mahajan
Deshmukh and Deshpande
Example
Indapur, Wai
Pune, Chakan

 

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