NCERT Solutions Class 4 EVS Changing Times

Changing Times

Questions with (*) sign are open ended questions.

Page 98

Find out and write

Talk to any one of your grandparents or any other elderly person. Find out, when she or he was eight-nine years old-

Where did she or he live? Name that place.

     She lived in her village.

From what material was her or his house made?

     Her house was made up of mud and wood.

Did they have a toilet in their house? If no, where was it?

     No, they didn’t have a toilet in their house.

In which part of the house was food cooked?

     Food was cooked in the backyard of the house.

A lot of mud was used when Chetandas’ house was made. Why?

     Because the walls of the house were made up of mud and a thick layer of mud wall protects the house from heat and cold.

Page 100

Chetandas tells that people from the basti used to come to clean the toilets and take away the waste. They were not allowed to enter the house.

The people who used the toilets did not clean them. Discuss.

     The people who used the toilets did not clean them because in those days, people thought cleaning the toilets is a dirty job. Hence, people from the basti used to come to clean the toilets and take away the waste.

Is there any toilet in your house? Who cleans it?

     Yes, we have a toilet in our house. We clean them.

Page 101

What material have been used in making your house?

     Cement, sand, bricks, concrete, wood and iron are used in making the house.

Find out the material from which your friend’s house is made? Is there any difference? Write about it.

     There is no difference in the material.

What kind of house do you think Chetandas’ grandchildren will live in?

     They will live in the high towers and skyscrapers.

Page 102

(*) Where would you like to live when you grow up?

     I would like to live in a big city like Mumbai or Delhi.

(*) What kind of house would you like?

     I would like to live in a bungalow.

You had written about the things that your grandparent’s house was made of. Has some of those materials been used in your house? Name them.

     No, from the materials used to build grandparent’s house only wood is used in making our house.

(*) People are given names according to the work they do. For example, a person who works with wood is called a carpenter. In your place, what do you call a person who works with wood?

     He is called a suthar.

Now look at the picture and fill the table.

What kind of work is being done by different people here?

What tools are they shown using in the picture? Write them in the given table.

Work Tool What is the person called?
Mixing the sand and cement Sieve, spade, iron pans Mason
Construction of roof Hammer, spade, iron pans Mason
Electrical fittings Wire, screwdriver Electrician
Fitting of pipe Pipe cutter, pilers Plumber

 

Page 103

Do you know people who do this type of work?

     Yes, I know the people who work as plumbers, electricians and masons.

(*) Talk to them and find out about their work. Discuss it with your friends.

 

(*) With your teacher or someone from home; go to a place where a building is being constructed. Talk to the people working there and find out answers to these questions.

What is being built there?

     A high-rise tower.

How many people are working there?

     More than 500 people are working there.

What kind of work are they doing?

     There are many different people are working. There are engineers, masons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers, crane operators, machine operators, supervisors and helpers.

How many men and women are there?

     Near about 350 men and 150 women.

Page 104

Are any children working there? What are they doing?

     No children are not working there.

How much money do these people get paid daily? Ask from any three different people.

     The wages are different as per the work.

Carpenters – Rs 500

Mason  – Rs 500

Electrical –  Rs 750

Plumber – Rs 750

Crane and machine operators –  Rs 1000

Where do these people live?

     Some of them live at the construction site while others come from their residence.

What are the materials being used for making the building?

     Sand, cement, cement bricks, concrete, iron rods, wood etc are used.

Try and guess how many trucks of bricks and bags of cement will be used for making the building.

     More than 1 lac of cement bags and 10,000 trucks of bricks will be used for making the building.

How does the material reach the building site? (by truck, handcart any other vehicle) List them.

     By trucks.

Find out the price of

One bag cement  – Rs 1500

One brick –  Rs 25

One truck of sand  – Rs 10000

Page 105

Ask a few questions and write their answers.

Over the sixty years, different materials were used at different times in Chentandas’ house. List these in the correct order.

i). mud, bamboo, wood frames

ii). unbaked bricks, cement, wood

iii). Baked bricks, cement, iron rods, wood

iv). Cement, concrete, wood, iron rods, marbles, tiles.

Additional Questions:

1). What was the age of Chetandas at the time of Partition of India?

     Chetandas was nine years old at the time of the Partition of India.

2). Dera Gazikhan is in which country?

      Dera Gazikhan is in Pakistan.

3). What do you mean by Partition of India?

      At the time of Independence, our country is divided into two countries- India and Pakistan. This is called as Partition of India.

4). When did India get Independence?

     India got Independence on 15 August 1947.

5). What was the advantage of using unbaked bricks over mud.

     The advantage of unbaked bricks was that we need not to coat the wall every week with a mixture of cow dung and mud. Whitewashing once a year was sufficient.

6). Name the materials used for making a house.

     Materials used for making a house are sand, cement, bricks, concrete, wood and iron.

7). Name the sons and daughter of Chetandas.

      Raju and Montu were the sons and Simi was the daughter.

Fill in the blanks

1). In his childhood Chetandas lived at Dera Gazikhan.

2). In those days, people in cities were using cement in construction.

True or False

1). At the time of Big Move Chetandas was ten years old.

False

2). Dera Gazikhan is in India.

False

3). At the time of Independence, our country is divided into two countries.

True.

4). Mud walls are stronger than cement walls.

False.

5). In the olden days, people used to go out to the field for their toilet.

True.

6). In the olden days, people used to clean their toilets.

False.

7). Raju’s wife uses chulha.

False.

Give reason

1). People in the villages used to apply a mixture of mud and cow-dung on the floor.

     People in the villages used to apply a mixture of mud and cow-dung on the floor because this would keep the insects and mosquitoes away.

2). People from the basti used to come to clean the toilets.

     The people who used the toilets did not clean them because in those days, people thought cleaning the toilets is a dirty job. Hence, people from the basti used to come to clean the toilets and take away the waste.

Click here for the solutions of 

1). Going to School

2). Ear to Ear

3). A Day With Nandu

4). The Sory of Amrita

5). Anita and the Honeybees

6). Omana’s Journey

7). From the Window

8). Reaching Grandma’s Home

9). Changing Families

10). Hu Tu Tu Hu Tu Tu

11). The Valley of Flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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