The Living Organisms Characteristics and Habitats
1). What is a habitat?
The place where an organism lives is called a habitat.
2). How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
(i) the leaves of the cactus are in the form of spines to avoid loss of water through transpiration.
(ii). The stem of the cactus is modified into a leaf-like structure and carries out the process of photosynthesis.
(iii). The stem of the cactus is also covered with a thick waxy layer that helps to retain water in the tissue of cacti.
3). Fill up the blanks.
a). The presence of specific features, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
b). The habitats of the plants and animals that live on land are called habitat terrestrial.
c). The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called habitat aquatic.
d). Soil, water and air are the abiotic factors of a habitat.
e). Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them, are called stimuli.
4). Which of the things in the following list or nonliving?
Plough, Mushroom, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water hyacinth, Earthworm
Plough, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat are the non-living things.
5). Give an example of a non living thing, which shows any two characteristics of living things.
6). Which of the non-living things listed below, were once part of a living thing?
Butter, Leather, Soil, Wool, Electric bulb, Cooking oil, Salt, Apple, Rubber.
Butter, Leather, Wool, Cooking oil, Apple and Rubber are once part of a living thing.
7). List the common characteristics of living things.
Characteristics of living things are
(v) Responsiveness to stimuli
8). Explain, why speed is important for survival in the grasslands for animals that live there. (Hint: There are few trees or places for animals to hide in grasslands habitats.)
In grasslands, there are few trees or places for animals to hide. In case of an enemy attack, the animals have to run very fast to hide or to protect themselves. If they fail they have to lose their life. Therefore, speed is important for survival in the grasslands.
True or false
1) Water in the sea is saline.
2). Plants in the sea use air dissolved in the water.
3). There is plenty of water available in the desert.
4). The body structure of a camel helps it to survive in desert conditions.
5). Several kinds of plants and animals live in the same habitat.
6). Water is an abiotic component.
7). Abiotic components are important for living things.
8). Adaptation takes place in a short time.
9). Desert plants lose a high amount of water through transpiration.
10). Frogs can stay both inside the water as well as move on the land.
11). Plants also grow.
12). Plants do not excrete.
Fill in the blanks
1). In the sea, plants and animals are surrounded by saline water.
2). Fish have slippery scales on their bodies.
3). Gills present in the fish help them to use oxygen dissolved in water.
4). The place where organisms live is called habitat.
5). When the seed turned into a sprout, it is said to have germinated.
6). Plants make their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
Answer in short
1). What is adaptation?
The presence of specific features or certain habits, which enable an organism to live naturally in a place is called adaptation.
2). What do you mean by terrestrial habitat?
The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitats.
3). What do you mean by aquatic habitat?
The plants and animals that live in water are called aquatic habitats.
4). What is meant by biotic components?
The organisms, both plants, and animals, living in a habitat are its biotic components.
5). What is meant by abiotic components?
The non-living things such as rocks, soil, air, and water in a habitat constitute its abiotic components.
6). How do the plants respire?
Plants respire through the leaves.
7). What is a stimulus?
Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them are called stimuli.
8). What is excretion?
The process of getting rid of wastes by organisms is known as excretion.
9). Write the modes of reproduction in animals?
Some animals produce their young ones through eggs. Some animals give birth to young ones.
Name the following
1). Two plants in the mountain region
Oak, deodar, pine
2). Two examples of terrestrial habitat.
Forests, grasslands, mountain regions.
3). Two examples of aquatic habitat.
Lakes, rivers and oceans.
4). Two examples of abiotic components.
Heat and sunlight.
5). Two animals in the mountain regions.
Yak and mountain goat.
6). Aquatic animals that do not have gills.
Dolphins and Whales.
1). Rats and snakes live in burrows in desert areas.
To stay away from the intense heat during the day, the rats and snakes stay in burrows deep in the sand.
2). The leaves of desert plants are either absent or very small.
There is very little water available in the desert. To reduce the loss of water from the leaves through transpiration the leaves of desert plants are either absent or very small.
3). Dolphins come out to the surface from time to time.
Dolphins do not have gills like fish. They breathe through nostrils or blowholes that are located on the upper parts of their heads. This helps them to breathe in air when they swim near the surface of the water. Therefore, Dolphins come out to the surface from time to time.
Write short notes on:
1). Adaptation of camel in the desert areas.
(i). The body structure of a camel helps it to survive in desert conditions.
(ii). Camels have long legs which help to keep their bodies away from the heat of the sand.
(iii). They excrete a small amount of urine, their dung is dry and they do not sweat.
(iv). Since the camels lose very little water from their bodies, they can live for many days without water.
2). Adaptation of fish
(i). Fish have a streamlined body shape that helps to move inside the water.
(ii). Fish have slippery scales on their bodies that help in easy movement through the water.
(iii). With the help of the fins, they change directions and balance their body in water.
(iv). Gills present in the fish help them to use oxygen dissolved in the water.
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