The Expansion of the Maratha Power
Q 1). Write the meaning.
Chauthai is the right to collect one-fourth part of the revenue from Mughal territory in Deccan.
2). Sardeshmukhi –
Sardeshmukhi is the right to collect one-tenth part of the revenue from the Mughal territory in Deccan.
Q 2). Write the answers in one word.
1). Balaji was from this town in Konkan.
2). He ruled Bundhelkhand
3). Bajirao died at this place
4). He defeated the Portuguese
Q 3). Write about them in your own words.
1). Kanhoji Angre
Kanhoji Angre was the chief of the Maratha navy. He chose to side with Maharani Tarabai and attacked the territories of Shahu Maharaj. This gave rise to a difficult situation. Under these circumstances, Shahu Maharaj sent Balaji to fight against Kanhoji Angre. Balaji avoided the war and won Kanhoji over to Shahu Maharaj’s side.
2). The Battle of Palkhed
The Mughal Emperor Farukhsear appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk the Subhedar of Deccan. In 1713 CE Nizam tried to establish his separate existence at Hyderabad. The Emperor had given the Marathas the rights to recover Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi from the Mughal areas. Nizam was against it. He captured some parts of the Pune Pargana. Bajirao decided to checkmate the Nizam. He defeated the Nizam at Palkhed near Aurangabad. The Nizam accepted the Maratha right to collect Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi.
3). Balaji Vishwanath
Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath, a Peshwa. Balaji Vishwanath hailed from Shrivardhan, in Konkan. He was competent and experienced. He convinced many Sardars that Shahu Maharaj was the real heir of the Maratha Empire and made them join hands with him. When Kanhoji Angre chose to side with Maharani Tarabai, he tactfully avoided war with Kanhoji and won him over to Shahu Maharaj’s side. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he obtained the rights to collect Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi from the Mughal territories in Deccan. He strengthened the position of Shahu Maharaj in Maharashtra.
4). Bajirao I
After the death of Balaji Vishwanath, Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji’s son, Bajirao I the Peshwa. He expanded the Maratha Empire during his term of 20 years. When Nizam-ul-Mulk was opposed to the Maratha’s right to collect Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi from the Mughal territories in Deccan, he defeated the Nizam at Palkhed near Aurangabad. With this defeat, he made the Nizam accept the Maratha right to collect Chauthai-Sardeshmukhi. The Mughal Subhedar Mahmmad Khan Bangush attacked Bundelkhand and defeated Chhatrasal. Chhatrasal appealed to Bajirao for help. Bajirao defeated Bangush and established Maratha supremacy in Malwa and Bundelkhand. Bajirao defeated the Nizam at Bhopal. The Nizam agreed to secure the sanad of Malwa Subhedari for the Marathas from the Mughal Badshah. Bajirao breathed his last at Raverkhedi on the banks of Narmada in April 1740. He was a great General. With his valour, he established the Maratha supremacy in the North. He won status for the Maratha power as a formidable power in the whole of India.
5). Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj. Immediately after his release from the Mughal emperor Azamshah, he marched towards Maharashtra. Maharani Tarabai did not accept his claim to the throne. He defeated the army of Maharani Tarabai and captured Satara. He get himself crowned and made Satara the capital of the Maratha kingdom. He knew the strengths and weaknesses of the Mughal Empire very well. Also, he was acquainted with the influential people in the Mughal Court. All these factors helped him deciding the new direction of Maratha politics in the changing circumstances. He made Balaji Vishwanath, a Peshwa. After the death of Balaji Vishwanath, he appointed Balaji’s son Bajirao I the Peshwa.
6). The Battle of Bhopal
Bajirao demanded from the Emperor the office of the Subhedar of Malwa. As the Emperor declined this demand, Bajirao marched on Delhi. The Emperor felt uneasy on account of Bajirao’s Delhi expedition. He invited the Nizam to protect Delhi. Nizam marched against Bajirao with his huge army. Bajirao defeated him at Bhopal. Nizam agreed to secure the sanad of Malwa subhedari for the Marathas from the Badshah.
Q 4). Give reasons.
1). Two separate Maratha States were formed.
Immediately after his release Shahu Maharaj marched towards Maharashtra. But Maharani Tarabai did not accept his claim to the throne. The armies of Shahu Maharaj and Maharani Tarabai fought a battle at Khed. Shahu Maharaj won the battle and captured Satara He got himself crowned at Satara. Tarabai proclaimed her minor son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati at Panhala. Thus, two separate Maratha States were formed.
2). Azamshah released Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj from his custody.
Azamshah believed that if Shahu Maharaj was released, there would arise a conflict between him and Maharani Tarabai for the Gadi of Maratha Chhatrapati. Azamshah felt that this would sap the Maratha strength and therefore, released Shahu Maharaj.
3). Delhi needed help from the Marathas.
The Mughal power faced the threat of the Irani and Afghani invaders from the north-west and also of the local Pathan, local Rajput, Jat, and Rohilas rulers. The internal competition and tussle in the court weakened the Mughal power. Due to all these factors, the Delhi Court needed the help of the Marathas.
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