The Maratha War of Independence
Q 1). Choose the correct option.
1). Aurangazeb was frustrated by his bravery.
a). Shahajada Akbar
b). Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
c). Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj
Ans: Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
2). They cut the golden pinnacles of the Emperor’s tent.
a). Santaji and Dhanaji
b). Santaji Ghorpade and Vithoji Chavan
c). Khando Ballal and Rupaji Bhosale.
Ans: Santaji Ghorpade and Vithoji Chavan
3). He fought bravely in the Goa battle.
a). Yesaji Kank
b). Nemaji Shinde
c). Prahlad Niraji
Ans: Yesaji Kank
Q 2). Find in the text in the lesson and write answers.
1). Why did Sambhaji Maharaj return halfway from the Janjira Campaign?
Sambhaji Maharaj returned halfway from the Janjira Campaign because, at the same time, the Mughal army invaded Swaraj.
2). Why did Sambhaji Maharaj decide to teach a lesson to the Portuguese?
The Portuguese of Goa joined hands with the Emperor against Sambhaji Maharaj. So, Sambhaji Maharaj decided to teach a lesson to the Portuguese.
3). To whom did Rajaram Maharaj entrust the responsibility of protecting the Swaraj when he went to Jinji.
Rajaram Maharaj entrusted the responsibility of protecting the Swaraj to Maharani Yesubai when he went to Jinji.
Q 3). Give reasons.
1). Aurangazeb turned his attention towards Adilshahi and Qutubshahi kingdoms.
Aurangazeb did not succeed in his campaign against the Marathas. Therefore, he suspended the campaign against the Marathas and turned his attention towards Adilshahi and Qutubshahi kingdoms.
2). After the death of Sambhaji Maharaj, the Marathas intensified their war with the Mughals.
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj did not compromise his self-respect and faced his death nobly and bravely. The Marathas took inspiration from his sacrifice and intensified their fight against the Mughals.
3). It was decided that the Raigad fort should be fought under the leadership of Maharani Yesubai.
Aurangazeb sent Zulfikarkhan to put Raigad under siege. That time Rajaram Maharaj and his wife Maharani Tarabai and Sambhaji Maharaj’s wife Maharani Yesubai and his son Shahu were at Raigad. It was risky for all members of the royal family to stay at one place. Therefore it was decided that Rajaram Maharaj should escape from Raigad, and fight to defend the Raigad fort should be fought under the leadership of Maharani Yesubai.
4). Sambhaji Maharaj started a campaign against the Siddi of Janjira.
The Siddi of Janjira used to harass the people in the Maratha territory. He used to raid, burn, and loot the Maratha territory and commit atrocities. Therefore, Sambhaji Maharaj started a campaign against the Siddi of Janjira.
5). The 18th century is known as the century of the Marathas.
After the death of Aurangazeb, the Marathas led others in filling the vaccum in the political arena. They controlled the throne of Delhi, ran the affairs of almost all parts of Hindustan, and protected it. Therefore, the 18th century is known as the century of the Marathas.
Q 4). Answer the following questions.
1). What is the ‘Maratha War of Independence’?
The long war that lasted for twenty-seven years between the Mughal Emperor’s greed to expand his empire and the spirit of independence of the Marathas is known as the ‘Maratha War of Independence’.
2). Write about the administration of Shambhaji Maharaj.
Sambhaji Maharaj continued the prompt justice and revenue system, which was characteristic of Shivaji Maharaj’s era. He severely punished the landlords who harassed common people and who rebelled against the Swaraj. He gave administrative powers to Maharani Yesubai. He continued the legacy of Shivaji Maharaj’s welfare policies.
Q 5). Write a note.
1). Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
Sambhaji Maharaj was the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. He was born on 14 May 1657 on the Purandar fort. After Shivaji Maharaj, he became the Chhatrapati. Aurangazeb’s dream was to destroy the Maratha State completely using his military and financial prowess. But Sambhaji Maharaj shattered his dreams with his bravery and military skills. Even though Sambhaji Maharaj was busy fighting on various battlefronts he did not ignore his administrative responsibilities. He continued the legacy of Shivaji Maharaj’s welfare policies. This Maratha Chhatrapati did not compromise his self-respect and faced his death nobly and bravely. The Marathas took inspiration from his sacrifice and intensified their fight against the Mughals.
2). Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj
Rajaram Maharaj was the second son of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. He was born on 24 February 1670 on Raigad. He became the Chhatrapati after the death of Sambhaji Maharaj. Rajaram Maharaj inspired hundreds of brave Maratha warriors with his understanding of nature and statesmanship. He motivated them to protect the Swaraj and thud performed a very valuable task. He was thoughtful and kind-hearted. He brought together all the capable people in the Maratha empire. He united them and created a new enthusiasm amongst them. After the death of Sambhaji Maharaj, he fought against Aurangazeb for 11 years with great courage and tenacity. Rajaram Maharaj’s greatest achievement is that he protected Swaraj in those extremely difficult times.
3). Maharani Yesubai
Maharani Yesubai is the wife of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj. Sambhaji Maharaj gave administrative powers to his wife Yesubai. He gave her, her own stamp. After the death of Sambhaji Maharaj, Yesubai chose to make Rajaram Maharaj and not her own son the Chhatrapati. Her decision is a shining example of her love for Swaraj and her extreme selflessness. At the time of Zulfirkarkhan’s siege of Raigad, Rajaram Maharaj and his wife Maharani Tarabai and Maharani Yesubai with her son Shahu were on Raigad. It was risky for all the members of the royal family to stay in one place. Maharani Yesubai tackled this unprecedented calamity very bravely. It was decided that Rajaram Maharaj should escape from Raigad and fight to defend Raigad would continue under the leadership of Maharani Yesubai. She kept the Maratha Chhatrapati secure without regard for her own life or that of her son.
4). Maharani Tarabai
After the death of Rajaram Maharaj, Aurangazeb thought that he had won the war against the Marathas. But it was not so. Maharani Tarabai, the capable wife of Rajaram Maharaj, came forward to lead the Swaraj movement in extremely unfavorable circumstances. Contemporary Mughal historian Khafikhan described Maharani Tarabai as an intelligent and knowledgeable woman. Her management of the army and administration had won renown even during the rule of her husband. Maharani Tarabai fought for seven years. Maharani Tarabai displayed the qualities of leadership of the army and management of campaigns. Thus, Maharani Tarabai kept the legacy of valour inherited from the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
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