7. The Administration of Swaraj
Q 1). Can you tell?
1). A council with eight departments – Ashtapradhan Mandal
2). Bahriji Naik was the Head of this department-Intelligence Department
3). The sea fort built by Maharaj near Malvan-Sindhudurg
4). He looked after the war materials on the fort-Karkhanis
5). Commodities imported from the Portuguese territory-salt
6). Two main divisions of Shivaji Maharaj’s army- infantry and cavalry.
7). The chief of the infantry- Sarnobat
Q 2). Write about it in your own words.
1). Shivaji Maharaj’s policy regarding agriculture.
Shivaji Maharaj knew the importance of agriculture. Therefore, he paid attention to the welfare of the farmers. He entrusted the responsibility of organizing the land revenue system to his capable and experienced office-bearer Annaji Datto. He warned the officers that they should not collect more revenue than the amount that was fixed. He encouraged peasants to bring uncultivated land under cultivation. If the crop was lost due to excessive rains or drought, or if an enemy army had devasted the area of the village, remissions were granted inland revenue and other taxes. Maharaj had instructed his officers to provide peasants with bullocks, ploughs, and good seeds for sowing.
2). Shivaji Maharaj- a ruler concerned about the welfare of his subjects.
Shivaji Maharaj did not work only with the limited ambition of conquering enemy territories and establishing dominance like other things. His main objective was to make his subjects independent. He was aware that if his subjects were to really get the joy of freedom, it was necessary to have a disciplined administration, take comprehensive care of people’s welfare and protect the conquered territories. Maharaj was not merely a ruler, he was a watchful administrator who cared for his people’s welfare.
3). Village economy during the period of Shivaji Maharaj
Agriculture was the backbone of the rural economy. In villages, many occupations developed to supplement agriculture. Artisans in the village produced goods and fulfilled the needs of the local people. In this sense, a village was self-sufficient unit. Farmers gave a definite share of their produce to artisans. This share was called ‘Baluta’.
4). Intelligence Department
It was necessary to protect the Swaraj from its enemies. For this, it was necessary to get precise and timely information about the movements of the enemy. It was the job of the intelligence department to obtain information about the movements of the enemies and submit it to Maharaj. The intelligence service of Maharaj was very efficient. Bahirji Naik was the Head of the intelligence department. He was extremely skilled in his job.
5). Navy of Shivaji Maharaj.
Enemies on the West coast of India, the Portuguese of Goa, the Siddi of Janjira, and the British factories of Surat and Rajapur, created obstacles in the work of expanding the Swaraj. It was necessary to curb their activities and to protect the west coast. Shivaji Maharaj realized that one who has navy, controls the sea. There were four hundred ships of various kinds in his navy. They included battleships like gurab, galbat and pal.
6). Ashtapradhan Mandal of Shivaji Maharaj.
To ensure the smooth management of the affairs of the Swaraj and to ensure people’s welfare, Shivaji Maharaj established the Council of Eight Ministers. The administration was divided into eight departments. A Head was appointed for each department. These eight heads constituted the Ashtapradhan Mandal. Maharaj had alone the power to appoint a minister or to remove him from his position. The ministers were answerable to Maharaj for the administration of their respective departments.
|Name of the Minister||Designation||Work|
|Moro Trimbak Pingle||Pradhan||Running the administration and making arrangements for the conquered territories.|
|Ramchandra Nilkanth Muzamdar||Amatya||Keeping the accounts of the State|
|Annaji Datto||Sachiv||Preparing royal edicts|
|Dattaji Trimbak Waknis||Mantri||Correspondence|
|Hambirrao Mohite||Senapati||Organization of the Army and protection of the kingdom|
|Ramachandra Trimbhak Dabir||Sumant||Foreign relations|
|Niraji Rawaji||Nyayadhish||Dispensing justice|
|Moreshwar Panditrao||Panditrao||Looking after religious matters|
Q 3). Give reasons.
1). Shivaji Maharaj established the Council of Eight Ministers.
To ensure the smooth management of the affairs of the Swaraj and to ensure people’s welfare, Shivaji Maharaj established the Council of Eight Ministers.
2). Shivaji Maharaj raised a navy.
Enemies on the West coast of India, the Portuguese of Goa, the Siddi of Janjira, and the British factories of Surat and Rajapur, created obstacles in the work of expanding the Swaraj. It was necessary to curb their activities and to protect the west coast. Shivaji Maharaj realized that one who has navy controls the sea. Therefore, with this foresight, Maharaj raised a navy.
3). Forts were of great importance in the medieval period.
The possession of a fort made it possible to keep an eye on the surrounding area. In case of foreign invasion, it was possible to protect the people taking shelter in the fort. Therefore, forts were of great importance in the medieval period.
Q 5). Answer the following.
1). What is a Baluta system?
The artisans in the village produced goods and fulfilled the needs of the local people. Farmers gave a definite share of their produce to artisans. This share was called ‘ Baluta’.
2). Who is Sarnobat?
The chief of the infantry is known as Sarnobat.
3). Name some famous sarnobats of cavalry?
Netoji Palkar, Prataprao Gujar, Hambirrao Mohite were some of the sarnobats of the cavalry.
4). Who is the head of the intelligence department?
Bahirji Naik was the Head of the intelligence department.
Other Lessons from Std 7 Maharashtra Board History
- Sources of History
- India before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj
- Religious Synthesis
- Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj
- The Foundation of the Swaraj
- Conflict with the Mughals
- The Administration of the Swaraj
- An Ideal Ruler
- The Maratha War of Independence
- The Expansion of the Maratha Power
- Marathas- The Protectors of the Nation
- Progression of the Empire
- Life of the People in Maharashtra
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