Marathas – The Protectors of the Nation
Q 1). Name them.
1). They came from Afghanistan.
2). They settled at the foothills of the Himalayas-
3). The brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa.
4). The chief of Jats at Mathura.
Ans: Surajmal Jat.
5). Defeated Nizam at Rakshasbhuvan near Paithan.
Ans: Peshwa Madhavrao.
6). The region to the north-west of Ayodhya province at the foothills of the Himalayas –
7). The ruler of Afghanistan-
Ans: Ahmadshah Abdali.
8). Chief of Rohillas –
9). Sultan of Mysore –
Ans: Hyder Ali.
Q 2). Write in brief about.
1). Raising the Maratha standard at Attock.
Najibkhan, chief of Rohillas, found it hard to tolerate the Maratha supremacy in the North. At the behest of Najibkhan, Abdali invaded India. He returned to Afghanistan with a huge booty. Raghunathrao and Malharrao Holkar marched to the North again. They captured Delhi. Then, driving out Abdali’s officers, they captured Punjab. The Marathas persuade Abdali’s soldiers right up to Attock in 1758. The Maratha standard was raised at Attock.
2). Conflict with the Afghans.
Ahmadshah Abdali, the ruler of Afghanisthan, was attracted by the riches of India. He marched on Punjab in 1751. There was anarchy in the Mughal territory. The Mughals were facing the threat of Abdali’s invasion. In these circumstances, the Mughals found it necessary for their own protection, to seek the help of Marathas. The Emperor was sure of the Maratha’s strength and integrity. Therefore the Emperor entered into a treaty with the Marathas in April 1752. As per the treaty, the Peshwa sent Shinde-Holkar armies for the protection of Delhi on behalf of the Chhatrapati. In return, the Emperor gave them Chauthai rights to the Mughal Subhas including Kabul, Kandahar, and Peshwar. Though the Subhas were previously a part of the Mughal empire, now they were part of Abdali’s Afghanistan. As per the treaty, the Marathas’ duty was to win the Subhas back from Abdali and annex them to the Mughal Empire. Abdali however, wanted to bring them under Afghan control, the region up to Punjab. So a conflict between the Marathas and Abdali was imminent and inevitable.
3). The after-effects of the Battle of Panipat.
The Marathas were defeated. A whole generation of young men in Maharashtra was killed. Many brave Sardars fell on the battlefield. After the defeat of the Marathas at Panipat, the Nizam once again resumed his anti-Maratha activities. Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacked Maratha territory in Karnataka.
4). The Battle of Panipat.
The armies of the Marathas and Abdali confronted each other at Panipat. On 14 January 1761, the Marathas opened the battle by attacking Abdali’s army. This was the third battle of Panipat. Vishwasrao fell victim to an enemy bullet in the battle. Sadashivraobhau who was fighting fiercely with the enemy suddenly disappeared in the battle fray. Seeing that their leader had disappeared, the Maratha soldiers lost courage. At that very moment, the reserve contingents of Abdali launched an attack on the Marathas with fresh vigor. The Marathas were defeated. A whole generation of young men in Maharashtra was killed. Many brave Sardars fell on the battlefield. The Maratha prestige in the North had suffered a severe setback because of the debacle at Panipat. The Marathas suffered a heavy loss in the battle of Panipat. Abdali’s army also suffered losses. He did not benefit financially in the battle. In fact, Abdali or his descendants did not muster enough courage to invade India again.
5) Peshwa Madhavrao
After the death of Peshwa Nanasaheb, his son Madhav Rao succeeded him to the office of Peshwa. He established the supremacy of the Marathas in the North again. Madhavrao defeated the Nizam at Rakshasbhuvan near Paithan.In the history of Maharashtra, he is described as an honest, hard-working, determined administrator who was keen on public welfare. The death of the capable Peshwa was an irreparable loss to the Maratha State
Q 3). Arrange chronologically.
1). The battle of Rakshasbhuvan
2). The death of Tipu Sultan.
3). The death of Madhavrao Peshwa.
4). The battle of Panipat.
5). The battle of Buradi Ghat.
- The battle of Buradi Ghat.
- The battle of Panipat.
- The battle of Rakshabhuvan
- The death of Madhavrao Peshwa.
- The death of Tipu Sultan.
Q 4). Give reasons.
1). The Nawab of Ayodhya invited the Marathas to subdue the Rohillas.
The Pathans who migrated from Afghanisthan had settled to the North-West of Ayodhya province at the foothills of the Himalayas were called Rohillas. The Rohillas had wrought havoc in the Doab region of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers. Therefore, the Nawab of Ayodhya invited the Marathas to subdue the Rohillas.
2). A conflict between the Marathas and Abdali was imminent and inevitable.
As the Mughals were facing the threat of Abdali’s invasion, the Mughals were sure that no other power was strong than Maratha to protect Delhi. The Emperor entered into a treaty with the Marathas. As per the treaty, the Marathas’ duty to win the Subhas back from Abdali and annexed them to the Mughal Empire. Abdali however, wanted to bring under Afghan control, the region up to Punjab. So a conflict between the Marathas and Abdali was imminent and inevitable.
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