Life of the People in Maharashtra
Q 1). Answer in brief.
1). Social conditions
Ans: Agriculture and occupations based on agriculture were the major sources of production at the village level. The Patil was responsible for the protection of the village and the Kulkarni handled the revenue. The balutedars were paid in kind in the form of objects, food grains, etc., for the work they did for the village people. The village occupations were divided into kali and pandhari. Peasants worked in their fields in the kali (land, earth, or soil) and others pandhari – within the village precincts. The joint family system was prevalent
2). Customs and traditions.
Ans: Child marriages were prevalent. It was acceptable to have many wives. There are few examples of widow remarriages in this period. To perform the last rites, burning, burial, and immersion methods were used as per tradition. Muhurtha, an auspicious occasion were sought for every little thing, and also to open battles. People believed in astrology. There was a general lack of a scientific attitude and offerings to God were considered more important than medical treatment.
3). Standard of Living.
Ans: A majority of people lived in villages. The villages were mostly self-sufficient. The only salt had to import from other places. The needs of peasants were limited. Barter system was used for everyday transactions. Village houses were simple mud and brick constructions. Men wore a dhoti, kurta, angarakha, and mundase. Women wore nine-yard sarees and blouses.
Ans: People celebrated Gudhi Padwa, Nagpanchami, Bail-pola, Dasara, Diwali, Makar Sankranti, Holi, Eid, and other festivals. In the Peshwa period, Ganeshotsava was celebrated in many homes. The Peshwa himself being a devotee of Ganesha, these celebrations acquired importance. Dasara is considered as one of the three and a half most auspicious occasions, many new things were started on this day. During Diwali, Balipratipada and Bhau-beej celebrations had special importance.
Ans: Various sports were popular in this period. They were a means of entertainment. Wrestling and martial arts were very popular. Mallakhamb, dand, lathi, dandpatta, bothati were practiced. Hututu, kho-kho, atyapatya were the popular outdoor games, and chess, ganjifa, dice were popular indoor games
6). Women’s life
Ans: Women’s life in those days was full of hardships. Their world was confined to the house of first their father, and then their husband. Their education was neglected. Only a few exceptional women had achieved any progress in literacy, administration, and battle skills. Customs like child marriage, unequal marriage, widowhood, keshwapan, sati, polygamy had imposed harsh restrictions on the way women lived.
Ans: The temples of this period are built in the Hemadpanti style of the Yadav period. The shikhar of the Ambabai temple at Kolhapur, Shambu Mahadev temple at Shikhar-Shinganapur, Ghrishneshwar temple at Verul are excellent specimens of sculpture.
Ans: Stone ghats built on a river or at the confluence of rivers are characteristics of Marathashahi. The most remarkable specimen of a ghat is the one at Toke, Pravara Sangam on the confluence of the Godavari and Pravara. In a flight of steps, there would be one wide step at regular intervals. This would lend beauty to the entire ghat construction. Strong bastions were built at regular intervals so as to prevent damage due to water currents.
Ans: The Peshwas encouraged paintings. Ragho, Tanaji, Anuprao, Shivram, Mankoji are some of the important painters of this period. Wadas in the Pune, Satara, Menvali, Nashik, Chandwas, and Nipani regions during the Peshwa period had paintings on their walls. The themes of the paintings at the temples were Dashavatara, mythological stories, Ramayana, Mahabharata, festivals and so on.
Q 2). Answer the following
1). Who was responsible for the protection of the village?
The Patil was responsible for the protection of the village.
2). What were the divisions of the occupations?
The village occupations were divided into kali and pandhari. Peasants worked in their fields in the kali (land, earth or soil) and others pandhari – within the village precincts.
3). Name the major crops
The major crops were jowar, bajra, wheat, ragi(nachani), maize, rice, and other grains in their field.
4). What do you mean by Marathashahi?
The period from 1630 CE to 1810 CE is broadly defined as Marathashahi.
5). Name the exceptional women during Maratha’s rule?
Veeermata Jijabai, Maharani Yesubai, Maharani Tarabai, Umabai Dabhade, Gopikabai, Punyashlok Ahilyabai were some of the exceptional women during Maratha rule.
6). Name the famous architect during Marathashahi.
Hiroji Indulkar was a famous architect during Marathashahi.
Other Lessons from Std 7 Maharashtra Board History
- Sources of History
- India before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj
- Religious Synthesis
- Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj
- The Foundation of the Swaraj
- Conflict with the Mughals
- The Administration of the Swaraj
- An Ideal Ruler
- The Maratha War of Independence
- The Expansion of the Maratha Power
- Marathas- The Protectors of the Nation
- Progression of the Empire
- Life of the People in Maharashtra
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